Importance: Germany’s unique approach to coverage determination and pricing has ensured that effective medicines remain on the market, often at prices reduced through negotiation. However, less is known about trade-offs of this approach with regard to initial availability of medicines. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine differences in the timing and scope of new medicines available in Germany and the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed initial availability of new medicines approved by regulatory agencies in Germany and the US between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2018, and followed up through December 31, 2019. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2020, to July 1, 2022. A total of 599 novel approvals were reviewed. Generic, biosimilar, vaccine, and combination medicines were excluded. Exposures: US Food and Drug Administration approvals were reviewed for therapies categorized as new molecular entities or new active ingredients. German approvals were reviewed from secondary administrative data of authorized medicines that determine availability in Germany, including data presented by the European Medicines Agency. Main Outcomes and Measures: Approvals were analyzed to determine the percentage of medicines approved and available in the US, Germany, or both countries and compare the times to reach the market. Results: Analysis of 599 new medicines demonstrated that fewer were available in Germany compared with the US (80% vs 92% of all potential therapies) and that the median difference in time to market was 4 months (95% CI, -44.40 to 44.76 months). Forty-nine medicines were approved in Germany but not in the US, 75% of which were rejected by the US Food and Drug Administration, were withdrawn, or had US equivalent agents. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, fewer new medicines were available in Germany compared with the US between 2004 and 2018. In addition, drugs entered the German market later than in the US.
Blankart, Katharina, Huseyin Naci, and Amitabh Chandra. "Availability of New Medicines in the US and Germany From 2004 to 2018." JAMA Network Open 5.8 (August 30, 2022): e2229231.